Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Dr. Ted Friedman

Second Advisor

Dr. Greg Smith

Third Advisor

Dr. Sharon Shahaf


Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPG) open new worlds and new societies in the virtual space. Those worlds and societies rapidly expand and become important to the real world. Therefore, to understand them, this thesis examines the meanings and impacts of resistance in the MMORPG worlds and gaming culture from the case of an unprecedented grassroots revolution in Lineage II, which is called the “Bartz Liberation War.” By using the concepts of “oppositional reading,” “emergence,” and “hegemony,” this thesis examines how playing for resistance emerges and becomes dominant and explores the impact of resistance in both the gaming and real worlds. Also, this thesis shows the cultural struggle for hegemony in the game world and gaming culture as well as in the real world culture and politics.