Date of Award

Summer 8-13-2011

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Educational Psychology and Special Education

First Advisor

Jolivette, Kristine

Second Advisor

Alberto, Paul

Third Advisor

Fredrick, Laura D.

Fourth Advisor

Scheuermann, Brenda

Abstract

ABSTRACT

EFFECT OF RESPONSE CARDS ON ACADEMIC OUTCOMES FOR HIGH

SCHOOL STUDENTS WITHOUT DISABILITIES AND HIGH SCHOOL

STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES WHO EXHIBIT

CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS

by

Ellen L. Duchaine

Response cards (RC) support effective teaching strategies such as maintaining a brisk

pace of instruction, increased opportunities to respond, immediate and frequent corrective

feedback, and high rates of behavior specific praise statements; all of which have been

effective in increasing student engagement for students with and without emotional and

behavioral disorders (E/BD) (Emmer & Stough, 2001; Simonsen et al., 2008; Sutherland,

Wehby, & Copeland, 2000). RC during academic instruction are successful in decreasing

disruptive behavior, increasing student participation, and increasing academic

achievement from the elementary school level to the university level. This study

examined teacher implementation of RC at the high school level for students without

disabilities and students with disabilities with a history of challenging behaviors (i.e.,

students with a disability and a behavior intervention plan) in general education classes

required for high school graduation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect

of RC compared to hand raising (HR) in inclusive general education classrooms. An

alternating treatment design was implemented to examine the potential functional relation

between the use of RC, student engagement, and academic achievement. RC (i.e., 8” x

11” laminated write

-on cards) were randomly alternated with the more traditional method

of HR which allows one student to respond to each question asked by the teacher.

Intervals of time on-task, attempted responses, next day quiz scores, and bi-weekly probe

scores were measured and analyzed for target students without disabilities and target

students with disabilities. In addition, individual scores of all students in the class were

calculated to provide a class mean, allowing further analysis. All sessions were conducted

by classroom teachers during daily reviews of academic content. The findings from this

study support prior research indicating RC increases student engagement by increasing

intervals of time on-task and attempted responses for the majority of students. In one

class, three of four target students increased daily quiz scores by 10% or more using RC;

and in the second class the mean for daily quiz scores was higher using RC. Although

results on next-day quizzes were inconsistent, bi-weekly probes indicate RC increased

retention of material learned over time.

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