Date of Award

Spring 5-17-2013

Degree Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)

Department

Public Health

First Advisor

Richard Rothenberg

Second Advisor

Ike S. Okosun

Abstract

Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the world’s most serious health challenges. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region most heavily affected by HIV, with 69% of the people living with HIV in the world. Côte d'Ivoire has a high HIV prevalence rate and Senegal a low prevalence rate. The main research question is whether or not the HIV risk behavior of Ivorian differs from the HIV risk behavior of Senegalese in terms of selected categorical and continuous variables. In other words, if using condoms at last sexual intercourse differs between Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Measure Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) involving 9,686 Ivorian and 18,363 Senegalese from 2005 were used. The Pearson Chi-square test were performed to determine any significant relationship between the variables across the two countries with respect to socio-demographic and HIV risky behaviors status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the significance of any association between the independent and the dependent variables (Condoms used at last sexual intercourse). Throughout all the analysis performed, a p-value of 0.05 and confidence interval of 95% were used to determine any statistical significance.

Results: Logistic regression models showed that Côte d’Ivoire respondents had decrease odds of using condoms during their last sexual intercourse (OR=0.7; 95% CI 0.62 - 0.79) as compared to Senegal and the difference was statistically significant at p < 0.05. In Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal, wealth and education have been consistently found to be positively associated with condoms used at last sexual intercourse.

Conclusion: HIV risk behaviors seem to be associated with condoms used and marital status. The results in our study suggest a possible relation with condoms used, HIV prevalence and polygamy in Senegal, so men use condoms less frequently with marital partners. More studies need to assess the role of polygamy in the transmission and/or acquisition of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Key words: HIV/AIDS, Risky behaviors, Condoms used, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal

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