Over the past 15 years, courses that mix face-to-face and online instructional methods, such as blended, hybrid, and flipped courses, have gained both supporters and skeptics in higher education. Studies that compare mixed courses to face-to-face or online courses have conflicting results: some find improved learning outcomes and some find no significant differences. We contend that these conflicting results are due to inconsistent or vague definitions of hybrid, blended, and flipped. To address this problem, we use the definitions from a recently proposed taxonomy to reclassify studies in the literature. After reclassification, analysis of this literature reveals two main themes that illuminate how mixed instructional methods affect learning outcomes. Courses that use mixed methods can either reduce time in class and maintain learning outcomes or maintain time in class and improve learning outcomes.
Margulieux, L. E., McCracken, W. M., & Catrambone, R. (2015). Mixing in-class and online learning: Content meta-analysis of outcomes for hybrid, blended, and flipped courses. In O. Lindwall, P. Hakkinen, T. Koschmann, P. Tchounikine, & S. Ludvigsen (Eds.) Exploring the Material Conditions of Learning: The Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Conference (pp. 220-227), 2. Gothenburg, Sweden: The International Society of the Learning Sciences.