Date of Award

7-15-2009

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Physics and Astronomy

First Advisor

Dr. Gary Hastings - Chair

Second Advisor

Dr. William H. Nelson

Third Advisor

Dr. A. G. Unil Perera

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Brian D. Thoms

Fifth Advisor

Dr. Richard H. Miller

Abstract

This dissertation presents a study of the molecular mechanism underlying the highly efficient solar energy conversion processes that occur in the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction centers in plants and bacteria. The primary electron donor P700 is at the heart of solar energy conversion process in PS I and the aim is to obtain a better understanding of the electronic and structural organization of P700 in the ground and excited states. Static Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) difference spectroscopy (DS) in combination with site directed mutagenesis and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based vibrational frequency simulations were used to investigate how protein interactions such as histidine ligation and hydrogen bonding modulate this organization. (P700+-P700) FTIR DS at 77K were obtained from a series of mutants from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803 (S. 6803) where the amino acid residues near the C=O groups of the two chlorophylls of P700 where specifically changed. (P700+-P700) FTIR DS was also obtained for a set of mutants from C. reinhardtii where the axial ligand to A0-, the primary electron acceptor in PS I was modified. The FTIR DS obtained from these mutants provides information on the axial ligands, the hydrogen bonding status as well as the polarity of the environment of specific functional groups that are part of the chlorophyll molecules that constitute P700. Assignment of the FTIR bands to vibrational modes in specific types of environment is very difficult. In order to assist the assignment of the difference bands in experimental spectra DFT based vibrational mode frequency calculations were undertaken for Chl-a and Chl-a+ model molecular systems under different set of conditions; in the gas phase, in solvents using the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), in the presence of explicit solvent molecules using QM/MM methods, and in the presence of axial ligands and hydrogen bonds. DFT methods were also used to calculate the charge, spin and redox properties of Chl-a/Chl-a’ dimer models that are representative of P700, the primary electron donor in PS I.

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