Date of Award

8-3-2006

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Physics and Astronomy

First Advisor

Dr. D. Michael Crenshaw - Chair

Second Advisor

Dr. Steven B. Kraemer

Third Advisor

Dr. H. Richard Miller

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Paul J. Wiita

Fifth Advisor

Dr. Nikolaus Dietz

Sixth Advisor

Dr. Douglas R. Gies

Abstract

We present a study of high-resolution long-slit spectra of the Narrow-Line Regions (NLRs) of NGC 4151 (a Seyfert 1 galaxy) and NGC 1068 (a Seyfert 2 galaxy) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spectra were retrieved from the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST) and were obtained from five and seven orbits of HST time resulting in five and seven parallel slit configurations at position angles of 52 degrees and 38 degrees for NGC 4151 and NGC 1068 respectively. The spectra have a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsecond across and 0.1 arcsecond along each slit. Observations of [O III] emission from the NLRs were made using the medium resolution G430M grating aboard HST. The spectral resolving power of the grating, R~9000, resulted in the detection of multiple kinematic components of the [O III] emission line gas along each slit. Radial velocities of the components were measured using a Gaussian fitting procedure. Biconical outflow models were generated to match the data and for comparison to previous models done with lower dispersion observations. The general trend is an increase in radial velocity roughly proportional to distance from the nucleus, followed by a linear decrease after roughly 100 pc. This is similar to that seen in other Seyfert galaxies, indicating common acceleration and deceleration mechanisms. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the emission lines reaches a maximum of 1000 km/s near the nucleus, and generally decreases with increasing distance to about 100 km/s in the extended narrow-line region (ENLR), starting at about 400 pc from the nucleus. In addition to the bright emission knots, which generally fit our model, there are faint high velocity clouds that do not fit the biconical outflow pattern of our kinematic model. A comparison of our observations with high-resolution radio maps shows that the kinematics of the faint NLR clouds may be affected by the radio lobes that comprise the inner jet. However, the bright NLR clouds show a smooth transition across the radio knots in radial velocity and velocity dispersion plots and remain essentially undisturbed in their vicinity, indicating that the radio jet is not the principal driving force on the outflowing NLR clouds. A dynamical model was developed for NGC 1068; it includes forces of radiation pressure, gravity, and drag due an ambient medium, simultaneously acting on the NLR clouds. The velocity profile from this model was too steep to fit the data, which show a more slowly increasing velocity profile. Gravity alone was not able to slow down the clouds but with the drag forces included, the clouds could slow down, reaching systemic velocities at distances that depend on the column densities of the NLR gas and density of the intercloud medium. A biconical model using the geometric parameters from our kinematic fit, and the velocity law from the dynamic fit, was used to match the data. The resulting dynamic model represented a poor fit to the data, indicating the need for additional dynamical considerations.

Share

COinS