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In this meta-analysis, we estimate the effectiveness of hybrid language instruction overall and across a number of moderator variables by aggregating effect sizes from 11 studies with 34 samples. Results suggest hybrid language instruction can be just as effective as traditional face-to-face (f2f) instruction, as indicated by the negligible differences between hybrid courses and traditional f2f courses (d = 0.14). Furthermore, studies employing within-group designs indicate that students in hybrid language classes can improve their language skills considerably (d = 1.47). This is a positive finding given that many institutions have experienced a surge in hybrid teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also report on a number of moderator variables that can impact the effectiveness of hybrid language courses, including (a) the amount of reduction in f2f time, (b) the use of online activities provided by textbook publishers, (c) the use of a learning management system, (d) advances in digital technologies, (e) the targeted language skills (e.g., speaking, writing), and (f) whether the data come from initial or subsequent iterations of a hybrid course. Additionally, we offer directions for future research regarding the substantive and methodological issues in the hybrid language instruction domain.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published by Wiley in Dixon, T., Christison, M. A., Dixon, D. H., & Palmer, A. (2021). A meta-analysis of hybrid language instruction and call for future research. The Modern Language Journal, 105(4), 792–809.


Available for download on Sunday, October 08, 2023