Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Sidney A. Crow, Jr.

Second Advisor

George E. Pierce

Third Advisor

Eric S. Gilbert


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapor pressure. Consequently, they readily evaporate from liquid to the gaseous phase at standard temperature and pressure. VOCs are produced by many microorganisms as a result of both uninduced and induced metabolic pathways. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs and formulations having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of particular interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs have been observed to elicit significant antimicrobial effects. It is believed that this contact-independent antagonism may present unique advantages over traditional microbial control methods, particularly where contact-dependent treatment methods are either impractical or inconvenient. This method may be of particular benefit for managing infections where disease may become pervasive in the population, such as with white-nose syndrome (WNS) among bats.

A list of potential antifungal compounds and formulations was compiled by referencing the scientific literature. Screening of compounds and formulations was conducted through toxicity analyses and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for the in vitro ability of VOCs and formulations to inhibit growth of select pathogenic fungi. A dispersal system was developed that entailed electrical circuit and software engineering as well as quantitative analysis to validate consistent and accurate dispersal of potential treatment compounds and formulations. Successful completion of these goals culminated in exposure trials involving live bats to determine any significant toxicological effects. Ex and in situ treatment trials were conducted to determine efficacy of promoting the reduction of disease severity and increasing survivorship of infected bat populations. The identification of volatile-based inhibitory compounds, in conjunction with a novel method for accurate and automated delivery, could prove a promising treatment and prophylactic in combatting microbial pathogenesis and contamination.