Skin has gained substantial attention as a vaccine target organ due to its immunological properties, which include a high density of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this vaccination route not only in animal models but also in adults. Young children represent a population group that is at high risk from inﬂuenza infection. As a result, this group could ben- eﬁt signiﬁcantly from inﬂuenza vaccine delivery approaches through the skin and the improved immune response it can induce. In this study, we compared the immune responses in young BALB/c mice upon skin delivery of inﬂuenza vaccine with vaccination by the conventional intramuscular route. Young mice that received 5 fLg of H1N1 A/Ca/07/09 inﬂuenza subunit vaccine using MN demonstrated an improved serum antibody response (IgG1 and IgG2a) when compared to the young IM group, accompanied by higher numbers of inﬂuenza-speciﬁc antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in the bone marrow. In addition, we observed increased activation of follicular helper T cells and formation of germinal centers in the regional lymph nodes in the MN immunized group, rapid clearance of the virus from their lungs as well as complete survival, compared with partial protection observed in the IM-vaccinated group. Our results support the hypothesis that inﬂuenza vaccine delivery through the skin would be beneﬁcial for protecting the high-risk young population from inﬂuenza infection.
Koutsonanos, D. G., Esser, E. S., McMaster, S. R., Kalluri, P., Lee, J.-W., Prausnitz, M. R., . . . Compans, R. W. (2015). Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination with influenza subunit vaccine in young hosts. Vaccine, 33(37), 4675-4682. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.086.
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