Natural infection and then recovery are considered to be the most effective means for hosts to build protective immunity. Thus, mimicking natural infection of pathogens, many live attenuated vaccines such as influenza virus, and yellow fever vaccine 17D were developed and have been successfully used to induce protective immunity. However, humans fail to generate long-term protective immunity to some pathogens after natural infection such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even if they survive initial infections. Many vaccines are suboptimal since much mortality is still occurring, which is exampled by influenza and tuberculosis. It is critically important to increase our understanding on protein components of pathogens and vaccines as well as cellular and host responses to infections and vaccinations. Here, we highlight recent advances in gene transcripts and protein analysis results in the systems biology to enhance our understanding of viral pathogens, vaccines, and host cell responses.
Lee, Youri et al. “Systems Biology from Virus to Humans.” Journal of Analytical Science and Technology 6.1 (2015): 3. PMC. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40543-015-0047-4
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