Author ORCID Identifier


Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)



First Advisor

Yusen Xia

Second Advisor

Satish Nargundkar

Third Advisor

Likoebe Maruping


Aim: The research aims to examine the impact of the usage of Information-and-Communication Technology tools on Software Team Effectiveness, especially the virtual teams, during work from home because of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Variables: The research has considered the Salas et al. (2005) model with eight constructs (adaptability, mutual performance monitoring, mutual trust, team orientation, closed-loop communication, leadership skills, shared mental models, and backing-up behavior) for measuring team effectiveness. The usage of ICT tools has been measured using the instrument developed by Nagi and Habok (2018). In addition, the moderating effects of the variables ‘age’ and ‘gender’ have also been tested in this research.

Methodology: This study employed quantitative research methods. Cluster sampling was used to collect data from 279 software professionals who worked at home during the pandemic. In order to analyze the primary data, SPSS software is used. In order to test hypotheses, the research uses ANOVA, regression, simple percentages, and principal component analysis.

Findings: The findings showed that using ICT tools impacts all 8 constructs of the variable team effectiveness. Among the most used ICT tool, project management tools, and social media were mostly used by the employees. Similarly, mutual team trust, backup behavior, and shared mental models were found to be more impactful than other constructs.


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