Junseok Kim

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Dr. Gabor Patonay - Chair

Second Advisor

Dr. Gangli Wang

Third Advisor

Dr. Stuart Allison


This dissertation describes the advantages and feasibility of newly synthesized near-infrared (NIR) bis-heptamethine cyanine (BHmC) dyes for non-covalent labeling schemes. The NIR BHmCs were synthesized for biomolecule assay. The advantages of NIR BHmCs for biomolecule labeling and the instrumental advantages of the near-infrared region are also demonstrated. Chapter 1 introduces the theory and applications of dye chemistry. For bioanalysis, this chapter presents covalent and non-covalent labeling. The covalent labeling depends on the functionality of amino acids and the non-covalent labeling relies on the binding site of a protein. Due to the complicated binding process in non-covalent labeling, this chapter also discusses the binding equilibria in spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. Chapter 2 and 3 evaluate the novel BHmCs for non-covalent labeling with human serum albumin (HSA) and report the influence of micro-environment on BHmCs. The interesting character of BHmCs in aqueous solutions is that the dyes exhibit non- or low-fluorescence compared to their monomer counterpart, RK780. It is due to their H-type closed clam-shell form in the solutions. The addition of HSA or organic solvents opens up the clam-shell form and enhances fluorescence. The binding equilibria are also examed. Chapter 4 provides a brief introduction that summaries the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), and offers a detailed instrumentation that discusses the importance and advantage of a detector in NIR region for CE separation. Chapter 5 focuses on the use of NIR cyanine dyes with capillary electrcophoresis with near-infrared laser induce fluorescence (CE-NIR-LIF) detection. The NIR dyes with different functional groups show that RK780 is a suitable NIR dye for HSA labeling. The use of BHmCs with CE-NIR-LIF reduces signal noises that are commonly caused by the interaction between NIR cyanine dyes and negatively charged capillary wall. In addition, bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCA II) is applied to study the influence of hydrophobicity on non-covalent labeling. Finally, chapter 6 presents the conformational dependency of BHmCs on the mobility in capillary and evaluates the further possibility of BHmCs for small molecule detection. Acridine orange (AO) is used as a sample and it breaks up the aggregate and enhances fluorescence. The inserted AO into BHmC changes the mobility in capillary, owing to the conformational changes by AO.