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Multiracial people report repeated experiences of racial identity invalidation, in which their racial identity is rejected by others. The current study examined whether the race of the perpetrator of these invalidating experiences matters in determining the impact of invalidation. A sample of 221 Black Multiracial people was recruited to take an online survey investigating their experiences of identity invalidation, levels of cultural homelessness, and challenges with racial identity. Participants reported that Black people invalidated their racial identity the most and they were most hurt by invalidation perpetrated by Black people. Lastly, those whose experiences of identity invalidation were mostly perpetrated by Black people, as opposed to other racial groups, were more likely to exhibit racial homelessness and challenges with racial identity. Results highlight the importance of racial identity affirmation by the Black community for Black Multiracial individuals.


Author Accepted Manuscript version of an article published in:

Franco, M. G., & Franco, S. A. (2016). Impact of Identity Invalidation for Black Multiracial People: The Importance of Race of Perpetrator. Journal of Black Psychology, 42(6), 530-548.

Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications.