Author ORCID Identifier


Date of Award

Spring 5-1-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Policy Studies

First Advisor

Deron Boyles, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Chara Bohan, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

David Johnson, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Qiana Lachaud, Ph.D.


In his famed pamphlet Dare the School Build a New Social Order? George S. Counts claims that “for Progressive be genuinely progressive, it must... become somewhat less frightened than it is today at the bogeys of imposition and indoctrination.”1 The current and prevailing definitions of progressive education and of indoctrination are antithetical to one another making Counts’ challenge and argument from the 1930s contradictory. This quandary calls into question the validity and relevance of Counts’ challenge for educators and educational policy today. Critiques of Counts’ work decry his use of indoctrination, yet little evidence exists regarding Counts' beliefs on indoctrination and education and his definition of the term. Has this lack of evidence perpetuated a misrepresentation of Counts’ beliefs and diminished the value that his work should have in the greater scholarly efforts to study the Social Foundations of Education? This research is a historical/philosophical study and exegesis of indoctrination in Counts’ work. The goal is to understand why he would argue for indoctrination in education and claim it to be a more progressive act.


File Upload Confirmation