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One touted purpose of virtual schools is to expand learning opportunities for students, but in reality, virtual schooling may not be readily available to all students. This study analyzes inequitable access to Ohio’s virtual schooling by examining disaggregated student enrollment data. Similar to past research, we found racial minorities and students with limited English proficiency were under-represented in Ohio’s virtual schools in comparison to traditional schools. However, unlike past studies, we found economically-disadvantaged students and students with disabilities were over-represented in Ohio’s virtual schools. The findings are explained through policy and legal lenses, and potential legal issues are discussed.


This is an Author Accepted Manuscript version of an article published in:

Wang, Y., & Decker, J. R. (2014). Examining digital inequities in Ohio’s K-12 virtual schools: Implications for educational leaders and policymakers. International Journal of Educational Reform, 23(4), 294-314. (c) Rowman & Littlefield. All Rights Reserved.