Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Psychology and Special Education

First Advisor

Daphne Greenberg

Second Advisor

Nannette Commander

Third Advisor

Mi-young Webb

Fourth Advisor

Anne Cale Kruger


Over the past few decades, self-regulated learning (SRL) has been an area of research that continues to grow in importance due to its strong relationship with academic success (Zimmerman, Bandura, & Martinez-Pons, 1992; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1997). Its early development arose through the metacognitive and social-cognitive literature with research geared towards a better understanding of successful learning. Over the years, confusion has grown over the conceptual definition of SRL, leading to a vast array of literature researching many of its sub-components and processes of metacognition and motivation. Two researchers in the area of SRL, Pintrich (1999, 2000, 2004) and Zimmerman (1989, 2000, 2002), have greatly contributed to our current understanding. Through their writings, a conceptual model was developed to include multiple assumptions, phases, and domains. Studies exploring individual differences have led to the challenging task of developing a measure of SRL. The two most popular questionnaires are the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (Weinstein & Palmer, 2002). With an increase in online learning, the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ; Barnard, Lan, To, Paton, & Lai, 2009) was developed to measure SRL in the online environment.

Barnard-Brak, Lan, and Paton (2010) using the OSLQ identified five profiles of SRL and related these profiles to academic success. This current study set out to replicate the design and findings of Barnard-Brak et al. (2010) in a traditional university setting with 477 students of traditional age attending online classes. Additionally, the current study explored the possible relationship of age, level of education, online learning experience, and online comfort with the identified self-regulated learning profiles. While the current study did not find the same five profiles, four profiles were found that demonstrate that students use varying levels of the skills associated with SRL. Relationships were not found between the four profiles and academic success, age, level of education, or online experience. Level of comfort of the online environment appeared to have an impact on profile membership as did gender.


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