This paper reviews the theoretical and practical issues surrounding the decentralization of responsibility for the provision of infrastructure to local governments in low income countries. The focus is on structural rather than management issues. There is plenty of evidence that following the theory can lead to efficient outcomes under decentralization, but also plenty of evidence that the theory and the practice often diverge widely. Seven policy rules that could support a successful decentralization of appropriate infrastructure services are drawn out of this review.
Bahl, Roy W. and Bird, Richard M., "Decentralization and Infrastructure: Principles and Practice" (2014). International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series. 23.