This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the difficulties of finance, particularly for longer term maintenance, and sets out options for improving allocations and the reliability of receipt for those allocations. Section 5 sets out the project cycle from planning, design, implementation, maintenance and subsequent evaluation. Section 6 summarizes the key issues and highlights the main policy considerations.
Ellis, Simon D. and Menendez, Aurelio, "Rural Roads: The Challenge of Decentralized Implementation" (2014). International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series. 28.