Date of Award
Master of Public Health (MPH)
Richard Rothenberg, MD, MPH
Rachel Culbreth, MPH
Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a significant public health problem. An estimated 36.7 million people in the world are living with HIV/AIDS, and the largest burden of HIV/AIDS is in sub-Saharan Africa, where approximately 25.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, accounting for approximately 70% of the people infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide. The purpose of this study is to examine associated factors among persons who exhibit stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya.
Methods: Secondary data with a probability sample of 11,909 participants who took part in the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression models and ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine associated factors among persons who exhibit stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya. The factors examined included age, sex, education, wealth quintile, marital status, literacy, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission. All analyses accounted for complex sampling design. All analyses were performed using SAS 9.4. Results
Overall, the majority (74%) of respondents indicated that they were willing to buy vegetables from a vendor with HIV/AIDS, and the majority (96%) reported that they would be willing to care for family members with AIDS. Approximately 51.6% of persons with primary education (95%CI: 50.4-52.9) were willing to care for a family member with AIDS in the household compared to 5.4% persons with no education (95% CI: 0.2-4.9). Primary education was significantly associated with being willing to buy vegetables from a vendor with HIV/AIDS (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 2.9-4.2) compared to no education. Persons in the “richest” wealth index (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.9-3.4) were more likely to report that a female teacher with AIDS should be allowed to teach, compared to persons in the poorer wealth index. No association was detected between marital status and exhibiting stigma and discrimination. Persons with correct perceptions of HIV exhibited lower levels of stigma and discrimination compared to persons with incorrect perceptions of HIV.
These findings highlight the importance of educating individuals and communities on the risks of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWHA. Education may promote acceptance and understanding, which may ultimately affect people’s attitudes, behaviors and opinions towards PLWHA.
Muthoni, Catherine, "Community Stigma and Discrimination Against Persons Living With HIV/AIDS in Kenya." Thesis, Georgia State University, 2016.