Author ORCID Identifier

Date of Award

Summer 8-9-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


Public Health

First Advisor

Dr. Carlos A. O. Pavão

Second Advisor

Dr. Brittany Jean Taylor


Introduction: Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming (TGNC) people regularly experience health care provider discrimination, contributing to adverse health outcomes. This systematic literature review aims to evaluate how including TGNC-specific content in U.S. nursing and medical school curricula affects health outcomes in TGNC communities. The effectiveness of previously implemented gender-affirming interventions will be reviewed, as well as cultural competency inclusion and TGNC racial health disparities.

Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles that assessed specific theoretical frameworks to describe why striking health disparities exist in TGNC communities, common health care barriers, and how disparities can be addressed through the inclusion of TGNC-specific and cultural competency criteria in U.S. medical and nursing school curricula.

Results: The results revealed that health care discrimination is one of the top barriers associated with adverse health outcomes in TGNC communities, with over 70% of gender minorities reporting harassment and discrimination. In addition to including TGNC-specific content in school curricula, results also showed that the inclusion of cultural competence training is also essential to advance health equity and to address TGNC-specific health needs and disparities.

Discussion: Results show that it is essential for U.S. medical and nursing schools to include TGNC-inclusive content in curricula to effectively educate and prepare health care providers to competently treat TGNC patients and help improve their experienced health disparities and barriers to care. By translating suggestions for future research into practice, common barriers to successful implementation can be overcome, and care quality for TGNC communities can improve.


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