Date of Award

Winter 1-1-2018

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Kinesiology and Health

First Advisor

Jeffrey. S. Otis

Second Advisor

Brett J. Wong

Third Advisor

J. Andrew Doyle

Fourth Advisor

Sarah T. Henes


Resistance training is beneficial in the improvement of skeletal muscle functionality. Improvements in performance, increased resistance to injury, and great force production are associated with resistance training. Hypertrophy of skeletal muscle mass is important for improving fitness, decreasing body fat percentage, improvements in whole-body metabolism, and enhancements in quality of life. The ability to recovery properly following subsequent training sessions is critical for maximizing training adaptations. Nutrient supplementation has been previously studied. The supplementation of carbohydrates has been shown to replenish muscle glycogen stores. The consumption of carbohydrates following resistance training benefits muscle protein balance by attenuating muscle protein breakdown. Another commonly consumed supplement is amino acids/protein. Supplementation of protein has demonstrated improvements in body composition (i.e. increased fat free mass), increases in hypertrophy, and muscular strength. Two type of proteins used by individuals that resistance train are whey protein and casein protein. Whey protein is a fast digesting protein that leads to quick stimulation of protein synthesis. Casein protein is a slower digesting protein that also attenuates the breakdown of muscle protein. Milk is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, whey protein, and casein protein. Whole milk, low fat milk (i.e., 1-2%), and fat free milk have shown positive results in the ability to improve muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass, strength gains. Therefore, the purpose of the following dissertation is to compare the effects of higher protein, less sugar content chocolate milk to traditional low fat chocolate milk on adaptations to (1) strength and performance measures and (2) body composition following resistance training.

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