Date of Award

Summer 8-9-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Kinesiology and Health

First Advisor

Dr.Deborah Shapiro

Second Advisor

Dr.Rachael Gurvitch

Third Advisor

Dr.Hongli Li

Fourth Advisor

Dr.Elizabeth Webster


Based on the importance of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and common performance traits of persons with developmental disabilities (DD) that impact the performance of FMS, a rater training is necessary to evaluate FMS accurately among this population. The first purpose of this study was to develop a rater training protocol on the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) for novice raters. The second purpose was to validate this rater training protocol using a modified Delphi method. The third purpose was to examine novice raters’ accuracy in scoring the motor skills of children with DD after completing an online rater training protocol. A total of eight experts completed two rounds of a modified Delphi method with intraclass coefficient statistic (ICC) of .75 or above providing evidence of consensus on content and presentation of training material. A total of 41 novice raters completed three rounds of training and scoring separated by 5 days each. Data analysis compared the change of rating accuracy of novice raters with that of experts on the run and two-hand strike skills on the TGMD-3 across three different occasions. There was a significant impact on scoring accuracy of novice raters to score the run (F(1, 39)= 56.431, p < .001), two-hand strike skills (F(1, 39)= 35.549, p < .001), and the total skill score (F(1, 39)= 64.323, p < .001). The TGMD-3 online rater training program for novices in the present study provides a model training program to improve the accuracy of scoring FMS among children with DD.


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