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Given the high visibility of big-time sport organizations, decisions made regarding hiring and firing, salaries and promotions, and strategic planning are subject to scrutiny from a number of sources, including employees, fans, alumni, boosters, competitors, political leaders, and the media. In this article, a decision-making model that illustrates three paths sport managers may take when responding to crisis events is presented. These paths include: resolution, escalation, and pacification. In every case, decision makers engage in organizational perception management to protect (or repair) their organization’s reputation and image. The model is applied to several recent crisis events in sport to further illustrate the unique decision-making options.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published in

Kellison, T. B., Bass, J. R., Lovich, J. M., & Bunds, K. S. (2015). Compounding crisis events and the organizational response. International Journal of Sport Management, 16(4), 573–600.

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