We agree with Carruthers that evidence for metacognition in species lacking mindreading provides dramatic evidence in favor of the metacognition-is-prior account and against the mindreading-is-prior account. We discuss this existing evidence and explain why an evolutionary perspective favors the former account and poses serious problems for the latter account.
Couchman, J. J., Countinho, M. V. C., Beran, M. J., & Smith, J. D. (2009). Metacognition is prior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(2), 142. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X09000594