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The variables that researchers measure and how they measure them are central in any area of research. Which research questions can be asked and how they are answered depends on measurement. This paper describes a systematic review of the literature in computing education research to summarize the commonly used variables and measurements in 197 papers and to compare them to best practices in measurement for human-subjects research. Characteristics of the literature that are examined in the review include variables measured (including learner characteristics), measurements used, and type of data analysis. The review illuminates common practices related to each of these characteristics and their interactions with other characteristics. The paper lists standardized measurements that were used in the literature and highlights commonly used variables for which no standardized measures exist. To conclude, this review compares common practice in computing education to best practices in human-subjects research to make recommendations for increasing rigor.


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Margulieux, Lauren, Tuba Ayer Ketenci, and Adrienne Decker. 2019. “Review of Measurements Used in Computing Education Research and Suggestions for Increasing Standardization.” Computer Science Education, January, 1–30.