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Book Chapter

Publication Date



The goal of this chapter is twofold: (1) to introduce the Chinese government’s current policies and initiatives for the international popularization of the Chinese language, and (2) to reflect upon the adequacy of the policies and initiatives from the perspective of economics of language. Taking the widely discussed 3-T Issue (i.e., shortages of qualified teachers, appropriate teaching methods, and suitable teaching materials) as an example for analysis, the authors argue that conceptualizing and conducting the international popularization of Chinese as a government-led public welfare project, as implicitly assumed in current policies and initiatives, is unlikely to address the issue effectively. Chinese policy makers should consider alternative models and approaches to better facilitate the internationalization of the Chinese language.


Author accepted manuscript version of a chapter published by Springer in:

Li, S., & Wang, J. (2016). Chinese government policies and initiatives on the international popularization of Chinese: An economics of language perspective. In J. Ruan, J. Zhang, & C. Leung (Eds.), Chinese Language Education in the United States (pp. 29-46). Springer