Design, Development and Evaluation of Web-Based Motivational Strategies Training: Individual and Situational Aspects of Academic Motivation
This research stemmed from observations and concern for the importance of learner motivation in academic situations. The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential for and process of change in academic motivation of undergraduate students enrolled in Learning Support Program (LSP) courses.
The Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997) provided the theoretical basis for this research. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was administered as a pre and postassessment. Instructional materials, based on motivational research, were designed and developed. Formative evaluation, construct validity, and pilot testing of the motivational strategies training program (MTV 101) were conducted prior to implementation of this research project.
The AMS was administered to a sample population of undergraduate college students enrolled in LSP courses. Two subgroups were identified based on motivation for going to college. Participants were selected from the subsample group of less intrinsically motivated students and were matched on age, gender, and ethnicity. Two students completed the MTV 101 program as designed, as a seven-week program. These two students and seven additional students participated in End-User Feedback Sessions (EUFS). The EUFS were structured as videotaped think-aloud protocol as students interacted with the program, thus providing end-user feedback for formative evaluation about the program.
Data from the sample population and subsample groups (AMS preassessment scores and demographic information) were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square, and multivariate analysis of variance. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze the EUFS 1) to ascertain the appeal, learnability, and usability of the MTV 101 program, and 2) to examine the individual and situational aspects of academic motivation from the perspective of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.
This study found that the majority of students in the study population were high in extrinsic motivation--external regulation. Overall, participants enjoyed the MTV 101 program, learned strategies, or felt it was a useful program. Individual differences and readiness to change emerged as factors that might affect whether participation in MTV 101 would promote improved academic motivation.