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Changes in reading and reading comprehension precipitated by the emergence of the Internet and related to information and digital communication applications have been noted in the reading and literacy fields for some time now. Teacher education programs play a special role in preparing teachers for instruction that capitalizes on such changes. The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which teacher education programs help teachers to embrace and critique technology, and literacies they engender, in teaching reading at the middle-school level. The study found the middle grades teacher education programs in this study to encourage the use of a range of technology tools. While traditional technology was viewed and used frequently for the purpose of teacher and student productivity (e.g., to record, display, or deliver information), information/communication as well as multimedia applications were viewed more often as sources of multimodal and interactive texts and as tools for meaning representation. Although the new generation web tools such blogs, Google tools, or webcasting applications were recognized as new types of texts, many of the multimodal texts and media that pre-service teachers were exposed to or explored for classroom use in this study were, however, older generation applications such as PowerPoint presentations, magazines, or environmental signs and symbols. Additionally, teacher educators’ and their students’ access to basic reading software, including fluency and comprehension programs, was limited. Implications from these findings are further discussed.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published in:

McGrail, E., Tinker Sachs, G., Many, J., Myrick, C., & Sackor, S. (2011).Technology use in middle grades teacher preparation programs. Action in Teacher Education, 33(1), 60-80.