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This short-form manuscript reports a content analysis of all ensemble concert programs distributed at the 2015 national conferences of the American Choral Directors Association, the American String Teachers Association, and the Midwest Clinic. The purpose was to address perceptions that print and design expectations for the concert programs were elaborate and, therefore, beyond the means of schools and organizations with limited financial resources. Programs were analyzed for characteristics such as overall dimensions, number of pages, use of color and photography, letters of administrative or political support, and design intensity. Analysis revealed substantial differences between the aggregate concert programs by conference, as well as between the individual programs distributed at the conferences. These differences indicate that conductors and sponsoring organizations have the flexibility to design and distribute conference concert programs that align with each ensemble’s philosophical, aesthetic, and budgetary considerations.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published by Sage in

Freer, P. K. (2019). Comparison of Printed Concert Programs at ACDA, ASTA, and Midwest Clinic National Conferences. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 37(2), 5-10.,


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