Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Women smokers with heart disease (HD) are at increased risk for negative health effects. At the time of invasive cardiovascular (CV) interventions is a critical opportunity to make lifestyle changes to reduce future CV interventions. The purposes of this study guided by the Health Belief Model were to determine which factors predict smoking cessation (SC) in women following an invasive CV procedure and to explore assistance received with SC.
A correlational, prospective design was used. Data were collected from women smokers at the time of an invasive CV intervention and three months later. Instruments measured commitment to stop smoking, perceived threat of HD and future interventions, cessation self efficacy, barriers to SC, benefits of SC, cues to action, and motivation. Analyses included Chi-square, t-tests, and multiple, hierarchical, and logistic regression.
On average women (N = 76) were middle-aged (M = 55.9 ± 8.0 yrs), smoked M = 15.3 ± 9.8 daily cigarettes and smoked for M = 33.6 ± 10.2 years. At baseline, fewer perceived barriers to SC, high cessation self-efficacy, and being more autonomously motivated to quit smoking explained 67 % of variance in commitment to stop smoking, F (6, 67) = 19.37, p < .001. At 3 months, only 8 (n = 54) women had quit smoking. Women smoked fewer daily cigarettes (M = 10.6 ± SD = 8.5) at 3 months compared to time of procedure (M = 15.3 ± 9.8), t(51) = 3.43, p < .01. Higher baseline cessation self-efficacy and lower HD threat were predictors of SC at three months, X2 (4, N=54) = 18.67, p = .001. At the three month follow up, the most common barrier to SC was anxiety (24%) and cigarette cravings (24%). While women were highly committed and confident they could quit, they reported receiving little help from their health care provider (HCP) other than simple advice to quit smoking.
Most women undergoing an invasive CV procedure were unable to quit smoking even with a high desire to do so. Referrals for assistance from HCP to decrease anxiety and nicotine dependence and to address ongoing challenges to SC are needed.
Moore, Leslie C., "Factors That Influence Smoking Cessation in Women Following an Invasive Cardiovascular Procedure." Dissertation, Georgia State University, 2011.