Date of Award

Fall 12-12-2010

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Cecelia Gatson Grindel, PhD, RN, FAAN

Second Advisor

Mary Catherine Gebhardt, PhD, RN

Third Advisor

Michael P. Eriksen, ScD


Problem and significance: Adherence to health-promoting behaviors in a diabetes self-care regimen is essential for individuals with diabetes and can assist providers and individuals with diabetes management. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between personal factors (age, length of diabetes diagnosis, perceived health status, weight), perceived barriers to action (number of barrier days), interpersonal influences (social support), situational influences (depressive symptoms), and patient adherence to health-promoting behaviors (blood glucose monitoring, diet, and exercise) and health outcomes ( A1c and body mass index) in a diabetes self-care regimen.

Methods: A descriptive correlational analysis was performed using baseline data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) [2007-2008]. Constructs from the Health Promotion Model were used to predict health-promoting behaviors and health outcomes in diabetes self-management. The 713 participants with diabetes were primarily Black or Hispanic (57.5%), older ( M 62.2 years, SD 12.9), and married or living with a partner (56.2%). Approximately half of the participants were female (50.8%); 59% were obese.

Results: The longer the time since diagnosis and the more barrier days experienced per month, the more frequently blood glucose monitoring was performed (R2 = .076, R2adj = .060, F (6, 363) = 4.875, p < .001). The greater the body weight, the more likely participants were to implement diet management behaviors (R2 = .097, R2adj = .081, F (7, 413) = 6.209, p < .001). The younger the age and the higher perceived health status, the more minutes per week were spent in exercise (R2 = .054, R2adj = .038, F (7, 412) = 3.307, p < .01). The older the age and the shorter time since diagnosis, the lower the A1c levels (R2 = .054, R2adj = .044, F (6, 568) = 5.391, p < .001). The younger the age, the more barrier days per month and the more diet management behaviors reported, the higher the BMI (R2 = .149, R2adj = .140, F (6, 581) = 16.764, p < .001). Findings indicate that treatment measures, not preventative, are being practiced, and that predictors of behaviors and outcomes are multifaceted and require further investigation.


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