We examine variations in nongovernmental organizations' (NGOs') responses to post-2001 changes in counterterrorism regulations in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan. We connect the presence of different ideal type responses—hiding, shirking, vocal opposition, participating, and litigating—to the extent of change in regulations, the degree of uncertainty (and risk) created by new regulations, and the availability of political institutions for NGO participation in policy-making.
Bloodgood, Elizabeth, and Joannie Tremblay-Boire. 2010. “NGO Responses to Counterterrorism Regulations after September 11th.” International Journal of Not-For-Profit Law 12.4: 5-19.