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Two hypotheses have been offered to explain the relation between testosterone and antisocial behavior in delinquent and criminal populations. One is that testosterone leads directly to antisocial behavior. The other is that a constellation of dominance, competitiveness, and sensation seeking associated with testosterone leads to either antisocial or prosocial behavior, depending upon an individual's resources and background. Analysis of archival data from 4,462 U.S military veterans supported the first hypothesis: Testosterone was correlated with a variety of antisocial behaviors among all individuals, however, socioeconomic status (SES) Proved to be a moderating variable, with weaker Testosterone-behavior relationships among high SES subjects.


Dabbs, J.M. & Morris, R. (1990). Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychological Science, 1(3), 209211.

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