Humans can behave fairly, but can other species? Recently we tested chimpanzees on a classic human test for fairness, the Ultimatum Game, and found that they behaved similarly to humans. In humans, Ultimatum Game behavior is cited as evidence for a human sense of fairness. By that same logic, we concluded that chimpanzees behaved fairly in our recent study. However, we make a distinction between behavior and motivation. Both humans and chimpanzees behaved fairly, but determining why they did so is more challenging.
Proctor, D., Brosnan, S.F. & de Waal, F.B.M. (2013). How Fairly do Chimpanzees Play the Ultimatum Game? Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6(3), e23819. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220806110
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