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Kristie Seelman:

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Transgender adults face a health care system rife with stigma, including a lack of culturally responsive providers and high likelihood of discrimination and mistreatment. However, there is a gap in knowledge about trans men—those assigned a female sex at birth who identify as men or as transmasculine—including subgroups, such as trans men of color. Using data from the U.S. Transgender Survey, the largest transgender survey conducted in the United States, this study analyzes whether trans men’s access to knowledgeable providers and their experiences of mistreatment in health care were related to demographic and mental health characteristics and degree of being “out” to providers. Among 7,950 trans men, respondent race and ethnicity, education level, disability status, psychological distress, suicidality, and being less “out” were associated with assessing one’s health care provider as not knowledgeable about trans-related care. Mistreatment in health care was more common among Alaska Native/American Indian trans men; those who lived in or near poverty; those who were queer, pansexual, bisexual, or an orientation not listed; those with a disability; those experiencing distress or suicidality; and those who were more “out.” This article discusses how findings can inform culturally responsive health care interventions with trans men.


This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Health & Social Work following peer review. The version of record:

Kristie L Seelman, Shanna K Kattari, Penny Harvey, Matthew Bakko, Trans Men’s Access to Knowledgeable Providers and Their Experiences in Health Care Settings: Differences by Demographics, Mental Health, and Degree of Being “Out” to Providers, Health & Social Work, 2020; hlaa030,is available online at: