Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Bethany L. Turner

Second Advisor

Nicola O. Sharratt

Third Advisor

Jeffrey B. Glover


This thesis investigates the relationship between long-term, macro-scale social change and systemic stress by analyzing osteological data from two occupations at the archaeological site of Tumilaca la Chimba, Peru. The first dates to the terminal Middle Horizon (ca AD 950-1250) and was established as the Tiwanaku state underwent collapse. Despite political fragmentation, this occupation is characterized by substantial cultural continuity in Tiwanaku practices. The second occupation dates to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP) (ca AD 1250-1476) and is associated with significant changes in cultural practice, suggesting a process of population replacement. This study compares skeletal data derived from cemeteries associated with each occupation. Paleopathological analysis of 20 individuals from the terminal Middle Horizon cemeteries and 23 individuals from the LIP cemetery reveals significant differences in age and sex and in skeletal pathologies. These results are a valuable addition to current literature examining the impact major political reorganization has on individuals.