Date of Award

Spring 5-9-2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Bethany L. Turner-Livermore, PhD

Second Advisor

Danielle S. Kurin, PhD

Third Advisor

Nicola O. Sharratt, PhD


Body alterations such as artificial cranial modification are permanent irreversible changes to the body that become a powerful, constant visual “salient” indicator (Torres-Rouff 2002) or life-long affiliation or demarcation of social identity (Kurin 2014). Most studies have focused on the social implications as well as typology and classification methods. Very few studies have investigated the extrinsic pathological consequences of external compression caused by the boards, pads, and bands used to create pressure at various points on the skull in order to achieve the desired modified shape. This study investigates the relationship between porotic lesions on the external cranial vault and the degree of modification intensity of the predominant cranial modification forms in the Chanka and Quechua societies from the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000 to AD 1400) in Andahuaylas, Peru.