Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Art and Design

First Advisor

Dr. Susan Richmond

Second Advisor

Dr. Kimberly Cleveland

Third Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Siegler


This study will examine two African American female artists, Faith Ringgold and Emma Amos, and how they used variations of the American flag in their body of works for social commentary. By examining their use of this motif, their goals of conveying messages about civil liberties, race relations, and gender identity will be highlighted. By the conclusion of this study, I will provide a clearer understanding of how both artists used the image of the American flag to challenge its messages of patriotism. I will also examine the connection between their shared use of the flag to demonstrate how the iconic symbol can be used to communicate a lack of civil liberties, as well as racial and gender inequality in the United States of America.


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