Author ORCID Identifier

Date of Award

Spring 5-3-2024

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)



First Advisor

Dr. Wesley Johnston

Second Advisor

Dr. Carolyn Curasi

Third Advisor

Dr. Likoebe Maruping


"Problems are opportunities." This familiar phrase encapsulates the essence of our study. It is an invitation to improve, to venture into uncharted territories, and to surpass our previous limits. One such problem, the "People Problem," looms large over numerous organizations in various industries. The U.S. mining industry, in particular, is grappling with this issue, striving to transform it into a catalyst for new growth and possibilities. This study aimed to contribute to the employee retention literature and equip practitioners with insights to combat the escalating job turnover rates.

The current study examined how transformational leadership, a powerful tool, impacts an employee's intent to leave or stay with an organization. Extensive research has been conducted on turnover intention, with several studies affirming its reliability as an indicator of actual turnover (Gan et al., 2021; Harhara et al., 2015; Tett & Meyer, 1993). This study leveraged a quantitative approach to address three research questions and test five hypotheses. Data was collected via an online survey of 150 plant operations employees working for mining companies in the United States.

This study’s findings suggest that transformational leadership has a direct and negative relationship with job turnover intention. Additionally, the current study tested whether a follower’s level of job performance mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention. The results for job performance were statistically significant. Finally, this study tested whether follower pay satisfaction, leader-follower tenure, and follower age would moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention. The results for follower pay satisfaction were statistically significant. However, leader-follower tenure and follower age were statistically insignificant.

This research should interest practitioners across many industries, particularly U.S. mining industries. Understanding how leadership, follower job performance, and follower pay satisfaction can impact job turnover intentions is theoretical knowledge and practical wisdom that can be applied to reduce job turnover rates and increase retention. Lastly, setting this study on plant operations employees working for U.S. mining organizations is timely, as mining companies have been battling high turnover rates.


File Upload Confirmation