Author ORCID Identifier

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)



First Advisor

Lars Mathiassen, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Likoebe Mohau Maruping, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Nannette Napier, Ph.D.


The imposition of government mandated technology has presented challenges to organizations that must overcome barriers to implementation. As such, there is empirical and theoretical relevance in understanding how organizations can implement government-mandated technology. The current research investigates how a highly distributed Human Health Services organization (HHS Inc.) implemented federally mandated technology through the lens of the Technology, Organization, and Environment (TOE) framework. The mandate, the 21st Century Cures Act, was signed into law in December 2016, and required that all personal care and home health care services must be electronically verified using global positioning system technology to record location (Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS), 2019). The organization met the mandated requirements by implementing a mobile technology. However, during the early stages of the implementation, the organization struggled to do so despite the federal mandate because employees resisted and voiced concerns about utilizing the technology. The research employs a retrospective case study design in conjunction with an engaged management approach to answer the research question, “How did a highly distributed organization implement federally mandated technology?” The contribution to research is that it provides empirically based insights into the organizational implementation of federally mandated technology and demonstrates how the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework can be adapted for the implementation and co-creation of mandated technology with end-users.


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