Author ORCID Identifier

Frances Chen:

Annis Lai Chu Fung:

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A psychometrically sound measure of empathy that captures its multifaceted nature is critical in furthering research on empathy. The only instrument that assesses three domains of empathy together with positive and negative valence empathy is the newly developed 30-item cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scales (CASES). The current study examines the cross-culture generalizability of CASES in Hong Kong and explores links between empathy and different forms of aggression and peer victimization. A sample of 4,676 Hong Kong youth (62% male) completed CASES, alongside measures of reactive/proactive aggression and multidimensional peer victimization. A subsample of youth (n = 2,321–2,464) and their parents completed additional instruments for testing the validity of CASES. We replicated most of the concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity findings in the original development of CASES. Proactive aggression was most strongly linked to affective empathy, whereas reactive aggression was most strongly linked to somatic empathy. Differential associations were revealed between subscales of CASES and forms of peer victimization. Findings provide cross-cultural generalizability for a brief self-report instrument that captures the multifaceted nature of empathy. The multifaceted nature of empathy is further supported by differential associations with forms of aggression and victimization.


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