Community Dynamics, Collective Efficacy, and Police Reform
In this chapter we illustrate how transformational police reform—i.e. changing the game—is possible. We draw on Bandura’s (2001) social cognitive theory to formulate the concepts of neighbourhood dynamics and neighbourhood atmosphere. These are both latent dimensions of neighbourhoods and communities that have clear and profound implications for neighbourhood safety. This work extends the concept of neighbourhood collective efficacy by explicating the multifaceted nature of “low collective efficacy”. We do this by focusing on the psychodynamic processes that occur in small neighbourhood and community places and show how they related to collective efficacy. In turn, we show why psychodynamic processes are important for neighbourhood safety and police reform.
Nolan, James J., and Joshua C. Hinkle. 2021. “Community Dynamics, Collective Efficacy, and Police Reform.” In Policing in an Age of Reform: An Agenda for Research and Practice, edited by James J. Nolan, Frank Crispino, and Timothy Parsons, 61–83. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56765-1_5.