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Female gamers belong to a stereotyped social group. The stereotypes associated with female gamers may be associated with issues such as sexism and gender discrimination in the gaming community. However, few tools exist to properly assess the complex nature of the stereotypes held about this group. The present paper describes the development and validation of the Female Gamer Stereotypes Scale (FGSS), which offers a multifaceted measure of the stereotypical beliefs toward women who play video games. Five first-order FGSS factors have emerged and been consistent with data across three studies. The five dimensions target areas of stereotypes toward female gamers such as their lack of femininity, lack of sociability, weak gaming competence, reliance on men in gaming, and gaming preferences. A total of 1266 individuals from both a student sample and large national U.S. samples participated the studies. In the first study, a large pool of potential scale items was generated. In study 2 and 3, the five-factor, 20-item FGSS was developed and validated through five subsamples, including gamers, male gamers, female gamers, non-gamers, and the general population. Across all subsamples, the FGSS demonstrated excellent content and construct validity. Implications of results and recommendations for future studies are discussed.


This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication at Psychology of Popular Media. The accepted manuscript is the final draft author manuscript, as accepted for publication, including modifications based on referees’ suggestions, before it has undergone copyediting, typesetting and proof correction. This is sometimes referred to as the post-print version. The version of record,

Yao, S. X., Ellithorpe, M. E., Ewoldsen, D. R., & Boster, F. J. (2022). Development and validation of the Female Gamer Stereotypes Scale. Psychology of Popular Media. Advance online publication.


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