A generally dated, albeit powerful and persistent, conception of "exile" is banishment from one's own land-a condition often associated with a form of punishment for crimes and political offense in ancient civilizations or, in more recent historical periods, periods of banishment for civil and political offenders to remote areas within a national realm, such as colonies in the Americas and Australia, or distant contiguous regions, such as Siberia in the former Soviet Union. In contemporary times, however, exiles are likely to be those who have fled political tyranny and/or economic disenfranchisement or those seeking greater opportunity for intellectual and professional expression.
West, Elizabeth J. Co-Ed. & Introduction. Caribbean Women Writers in Exile. in Studies in the Literary Imagination 37.2 (Fall 2004).