Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


Public Health

First Advisor

Michael P. Eriksen, Sc.D

Second Advisor

Solomon I. Okosun, PhD

Third Advisor

Richard B. Rothenberg, MD


Background: Breast and Gynecological cancers are a major public health problem. Smoking is associated with several chronic diseases including cancer. Other lifestyles of public health predispose many people to dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity; risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and are associated with cancer.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find if those who smoke, and have the metabolic syndrome, are more likely to have breast or gynecological cancers, and to find the distribution by education, having health insurance, race/ethnicity and socio-economic status.

Methods: A case-control study of females aged 20 years and above who participated in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010.

Results: Females who have smoked more than hundred cigarettes in life and still smoke; a) have a 42 percent less chance of having a breast cancer diagnosis (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.36 – 0.93, p-value 0.025), and b) are 2.67 times as likely to report a cervical cancer diagnosis as females who have smoked less than hundred cigarettes in life (OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.72 – 4.13, p-value

Conclusion: Smoking and metabolic syndrome are very important indicators of reproductive health and needs further study. Smoking cessation interventions should be an integral part of cervical cancer prevention programs especially targeted at younger females and females who live below the federal poverty level.