Author ORCID Identifier

0000-0003-1574-3387

Date of Award

Spring 12-13-2022

Degree Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)

First Advisor

Lisa Casanova, PhD

Second Advisor

Alfreda Holloway-Beth, PhD

Abstract

Aims: This review sought to understand the burden of disease caused by Campylobacter that comes from the drinking water supply and how it can be detected and controlled. The review will analyze the findings from studies that investigate waterborne Campylobacter clinical or public source cases to develop an in-depth understanding of outbreaks how infection can be prevented. It is important to know the breakdown within the systems for which the bacteria is introduced into the system, demonstrate whether the water treatment process test for Campylobacter, and what can be done to reduce and/or eliminate contamination.

Methodology: This study was conducted as a systematic review according to the guidelines provided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar Databases were searched for relevant data studies. A data extraction sheet was used for the systematic review. Variables that were created included type of study design, country, setting, type of samples, diagnostic method, results, and number of cases.

Results: The review implicates Campylobacter as the main causative agent of waterborne outbreaks (Campylobacteriosis), which often originates from the central water supply systems contaminated by wastewater runoff or sewage. Animals and livestock cause a large proportion of waterborne outbreaks of Campylobacter.

Conclusion: Since the animals and livestock are found in the environments close to human water source supplies, particularly in rural areas, water contamination from feces is inevitable. More monitoring and surveillance is needed to prevent waterborne Campylobacter outbreaks, as well as improved diagnostic tests. This will improve detection and response time and mitigate adverse health effects of consumption of contaminated water. Studies from using the PRISMA method do not allow for the evaluation of water treatment processes. This method does help to enumerate the burden of disease on the human population.

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