Date of Award

Spring 5-15-2020

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Kinesiology and Health

First Advisor

Dr. Beth Cianfrone

Second Advisor

Dr. Timothy Kellison

Third Advisor

Dr. Stephen Shapiro

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Soon-Ho Kim

Fifth Advisor

Dr. Jacalyn Lund


Ticket sales are an essential revenue source for sport organizations. As such, ticket managers have different strategies to encourage sales and maximize profits. The options on how to display the ticket price and associated ticketing fees to consumers, either through partitioned pricing (PP) or all-inclusive pricing (AIP), is an important decision. The sport industry has given little consideration to the effects of pricing strategies on consumers. Grounded on the theoretical foundation set forth by past PP research, the dissertation examines the two pricing strategies through a review of literature, and two experimental studies, isolating the potential effects of the fees on sport consumers. Through an online simulated digital ticketing experience, participants (N = 1,009) were randomly assigned into groups and completed a survey about purchasing tickets to a Major League Baseball (MLB) game. Study 1 (n = 949) considers the potential effects of the pricing strategies (PP and AIP) on sport consumers' price perceptions (i.e., total price recall), offer assessment (i.e., perceived value), and price comparison (i.e., search intentions), as well as the possible moderating effect of the price level experienced, and the participants' level of team identification on the impact of the pricing format. The moderating effect of the price level and team identification were non-significant; both variables had a direct influence on the dependent variables. Study 2 (n = 458) examines the potential effects of spectators' perceptions of fee responsibility when experiencing PP while purchasing tickets to attend a MLB regular-season game. The study examines differences in spectators' offer assessment (i.e., perceived value) based on the pricing characteristics (3 price levels), spectators' perceptions of fee responsibility (2 levels), and spectators' perceptions of fee reasonableness (2 levels). The study considered both the direct and interaction effect of these variables on perceived value. Theoretical and managerial implications associated with the findings point to the potential risk of PP strategies when spectators' hold the teams responsible for fees, and when the surcharges are deemed unreasonable. Future research should consider the manipulation of fee levels, other sports and sport levels, and alternative purchasing scenarios, such as licensed sport apparel.


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