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In recent years, referenda have been used to inform decisions to bid on major sport events. Recognising referenda as a means to engage a community in a major sport event, the purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of referenda support and participation intention. A sample of 603 New Zealanders completed a questionnaire a) the intention to participate in such a referendum. Based on exploratory factor analysis assessing b) their support for a referendum on their city bidding to host the Commonwealth Games, and multinomial logistic regression, the key findings are that political cynicism, civic duty, event status and involvement affected voters’ referendum support, while political cynicism, civic duty, political interest, event status and involvement impacted their voting intentions. The results have implications for prospective host cities, sport managers, policymakers, and ordinary citizens.


Author accepted manuscript version of an article published in

Johnston, M., Naylor, M., Dickson, G., Hedlund, D., & Kellison, T. (2021). Determinants of support and participation in a major sport event referendum. Sport Management Review, 24(1), 134–155.


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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Available for download on Friday, September 30, 2022

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