Date of Award

Spring 5-6-2024

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Learning Technologies Division

First Advisor

Dr. Jonathan Cohen

Second Advisor

Dr. Miles Irving

Third Advisor

Dr. Michael Law

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Lauren Margulieux


Math continues to be a challenge for American high school students. The United States was placed ninth in reading and thirty-first in math literacy out of 79 nations and economies in the most recent results for international exams given to teens. Math test results were worst in states with large wealth disparity. Motivation and engagement, conceptualized as students' energy and drive to participate, learn, work efficiently, and realize their potential at school, play a significant impact in students' academic success. While the flipped classroom methodology has demonstrated some success within helping this trend, many studies indicate that additional assistance is needed in keeping the students motivated and engaged for the technique to be successful. The purpose of this study was to help continue to examine supplementing the flipped classroom with additional support to further engage and motivate students. An experimental quantitative study compared a gamified flipped classroom instructional methodology to both a normal flipped classroom and a traditional lecture style class within a six-week summer program for low-income and first-generation high school students. Scores from a post-test assessment examined the differences in achievement. Motivation was measured through scores from the Math Motivation Questionnaire and engagement was measured through scores from the Student Engagement in Mathematics Scale. Findings could contribute to the literature revealing how gamification can assist in motivating and engaging high school students within a mathematics class. This study could have practical significance by identifying the effective features of both the flipped classroom and gamification within mathematics. This knowledge could be useful in determining best practices for designing and implementing this teaching technique.


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