Date of Award

Spring 4-9-2024

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Learning Technologies Division

First Advisor

Jonathan D. Cohen, PhD

Second Advisor

Jennifer Darling-Aduana, PhD

Third Advisor

G. Sue Kasun, PhD

Fourth Advisor

Yin-Chan, Liao, PhD


Utilizing technology in the classroom to support daily instruction has increased significantly in many K12 learning environments (Culp et al., 2005; Davies & West, 2014; Gray & Lewis, 2021). However, empirical research identifying how technology is used to support the education of American Indian students in the United States is scarce (Adcock, 2014; Swagerty, 2021). Parallel to the growth of technology in K12 classrooms has been the growth of “asset-based pedagogies,” including culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) which can potentially increase engagement, participation, and a sense of belonging in the classroom for minoritized students (Ladson-Billings, 1995; McCarty & Brayboy, 2021; Paris & Alim, 2014). This research aims to explore the nexus between these two parallel movements within the context of American Indian education. The affordances of instructional technology have the potential to support CRP for Indigenous students by providing opportunities to tailor instruction to American Indian culture, language, and traditions (Adcock, 2014; Allen et al., 2002). Quantitative analysis of the relationship between CRP and instructional technology within American Indian education is a gap within the literature. Through quantitative analysis of nationally representative survey data, this study aims to clarify if and how teachers of American Indian students are using technology and Indigenous CRP. Although some qualitative research has investigated instructional technology and CRP with American Indian students, it is outdated, and no single study exists that quantitatively analyzes how teachers of American Indian students are utilizing technology. This study aims to guide future professional development, coaching, and training for teachers of American Indian students and promote and support educational sovereignty by informing educators and policymakers of how technology can sustain Indigenous languages and culture in the classroom.


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